Mitral annular calcification
Mitral annular calcification is common in the elderly and in the mild form isolated to the LV side of the posterior annulus. This can result in mild to moderate Mitral regurgitation, due to the rigidity of the annulus. Occasionally can involve the base of the leaflets and can result in impaired opening of the mitral valve, reducing the effective orifice and leads to Mitral Stenosis.
Echocardiographically this can be distinguished from rheumatic heart disease by the absence of commissural fusion and thin mobile leaflets.